Donnie Darko
Franks Eye

Movie Explanation

Firstly this explanation is written assuming that you've seen the film. There are spoilers throughout so it could ruin the enjoyable experience of watching it for the first time.

The film has been carefully made so that there are multiple explanations to what happens. With the release of the director's cut some of the ambiguity has been taken away and the director's true version of the story becomes clearer. The explanation heavily revolves around the book Donnie gets from his teacher, "The Philosophy of Time Travel" written by Roberta Sparrow (Grandma Death). The book is a fictional one but some of the pages were in the film's web site and included into the director's cut version of the movie. You can read those pages here.

PU = Primary Universe (The Universe we exist in now)
TU = Tangent Universe (The parallel Universe that most of the film is set in)
PoTT = Philosophy of Time Travel

Tangent Universe

The PoTT states that time is usually a stable construct but every now and then the fourth dimension gets corrupted. When this happens it creates a TU which is highly unstable and will only last a few weeks before it collapses in upon itself. There is a danger that when the TU collapses it could cause a black hole capable of destroying the PU as well.

This is what happens in the movie, there is a corruption in time and at midnight on October 2nd a TU is created. The next 28 days are now set in this alternate reality. Shortly after the TU starts Frank wakes Donnie up and lures him out of the house. A few minutes later a huge jet engine falls though the rip in time and lands in Donnie's bedroom.

It is important to remember that the TU is NOT created by the jet engine or Frank waking up Donnie. We are already within the TU when both those events occur. Unfortunately we never find out what caused the TU to begin, it's just an unexplained phenomenon.

The Artifact

The ArtifactAccording to the PoTT when a TU is created an Artifact will also spontaneously appear. The Artifact is the first sign of evidence that a TU has been created and are always made from metal. In this case the Artifact is a giant jet engine.

Where the Artifact originally comes from is never disclosed. It was most likely created as the TU was being formed. The TU is an exact copy of the PU with one of everything copied into it. During the copying process there was a glitch and two jet engines were formed. The second engine has nowhere to go as it already exists so it's just dumped where the TU began, over Donnie's house.

The Artifact makes the TU unstable; it can't handle having the anomaly of a duplicate object within it. In order for the TU to unravel without forming a black hole it must once again be an exact copy of the PU. By removing one of the duplicate jet engines it will balance out the Universe allowing the TU to collapse safely. The only way to remove the Artifact is to send it through a portal into the PU.

The Living Receiver

The Living ReceiverWhen a TU occurs with an Artifact then a Living Receiver is also chosen. This person is chosen seemingly at random and in this case Donnie is the chosen one. As Donnie was at the epicentre of the TU this is most likely why he was selected. The Living Receiver's mission is to guide the Artifact out of the TU.

This person is usually blessed with some supernatural powers during their time in the TU to help them with their quest. Some of these include increased strength, mind control, the ability to conjure fire and water and telekinesis.

  • He uses strength to bury the axe into the school water pipe and solid bronze mascot.
  • He uses fire to burn Jim Cunningham's house down
  • He floods the school and constructs a time portal from water.
  • He uses telekinesis to rip the jet engine off the plane to send it through the time portal.

Donnie is not aware of his responsibilities at first though and he doesn't even know he is within a TU. As his journey continues he slowly starts to realise what is going on and what he must do.

Manipulated Dead


Anyone connected to the Living Receiver who dies in the TU becomes Manipulated Dead. These people are very powerful and have the ability to move through time and talk to the Living Receiver through a Fourth Dimensional Construct. They also have some knowledge of the impending disaster and help guide the chosen one.

Frank is killed in the TU and therefore becomes one of the Manipulated Dead. He travels back in time and helps Donnie with his quest to return the Artifact. The first thing he must do is save Donnie by waking him up before he gets squashed by the jet engine. He is like a reverse ghost who appears before he was killed. Gretchen is also Manipulated Dead but she doesn't appear to Donnie in the same way as it might be to confusing for him.

Manipulated Living

Mrs Pomery and DonnieAll the people connected to the Living Receiver are the Manipulated Living and these people will subconsciously help guide the Living receiver. They will behave in the exact perfect way necessary to push Donnie toward his eventual destiny. Nearly every event in the film has a specific purpose designed to aid Donnie to save the Universe.

There is a driving force behind the Manipulated's behaviour... although we never find out what it is for sure. God is one of the most popular ideas mooted, the film does use religion at many points. The story uses lots of religious symbols and often points to the idea that you follow God's channel to decide your own fate. This guiding force is moving all the Manipulated characters around like pieces on a chessboard, making a sequence of events that will lead to Donnie's success. The Universe is in grave danger and this guiding force has stepped in to help save it.

The Ensurance Trap

Dead FrankThe PoTT states that all the Manipulated are trying to lure the Living Receiver into a trap so has no choice but to send the Artifact out of the TU into the PU. The PoTT calls this the Ensurance Trap (old English) . This is effectively the role all the Manipulated play, they are trying to save themselves by guiding Donnie to complete his mission. If Donnie fails they die as well.

Frank tells Donnie to flood the school which in turn leads to Donnie walking Gretchen home and him then asking her to be his girlfriend. This event is not just coincidence; it's specifically put in place as part of the trap.

Gretchen plays a crucial role in the trap, remember Donnie only meets and falls in love with her within the TU. He is given someone to love then she dies. He's so upset at Frank for killing Gretchen he shoots him dead. This has now created Manipulated Dead Frank, the person guiding him to do these things. He must create Manipulated Dead Frank in order to be saved himself in the beginning.

The manipulated have now successfully set the trap. Donnie was saved from death and is now in a desperate situation. His girlfriend is dead and he's a killer on the run. He knows what his purpose is now and only has one way out even though it will ultimately end his own life. Sending the engine through a portal will erase the last 28 days from history and time will return to October 2nd... back to when Gretchen was still alive.

The End of the Film


At the end of the film we see a vortex appear over Donnie's house. It's the beginning of the TU collapse and is centred over where it began. Donnie is aware of what he must do now so he drives up the mountain for a better vantage point. The plane with the same jet engine has been manipulated to fly overhead at this exact time. Donnie rips the engine off using telekinesis, constructs a time portal from water and guides the engine through it.

We now see parts of the last 28 days rewinding as the TU starts to unravel. The TU has collapsed safely and the PU that was on pause starts back up from when it stopped. We are now back in reality on October 2nd, the last 28 days never happened. Donnie wakes up in his bed laughing after dreaming some of the events within the TU. He then goes back to sleep seemingly content with life now. The experience has seemingly brought him closer to God and he is no longer afraid to die. The jet engine Donnie sent through the time portal now falls into his bedroom killing him.


Gretchen WavingEven though the last 28 days never actually happened some of the Manipulated will be haunted in their dreams by their experiences within the TU.

There are bits of evidence to prove this. Frank touching his eye in the final montage and Gretchen waving to Donnie's mum proves that some of the characters have some knowledge of what happened within the lost world.

We see Jim Cunningham crying in the montage as he wakes up... clearly disgusted with himself. Ten days later he clears out his child pornography dungeon and shoots himself on the 14th hole of the golf course... his dirty secret is never revealed.

Final Remarks

Many people assume Donnie has to die otherwise the TU would start over again. From a scientific point of view Donnie's death is not relevant at all , the corruption is already fixed before he dies and if he got up and avoided death then nothing would change. The PoTT tells us of previous Receiver's who died after the Artifact was returned but we only hear about them because their death defies logic. Any Receiver's who escaped death would go completely unnoticed.

It's almost certain Roberta Sparrow was a Living Receiver in a previous TU and that is how she came to write the PoTT. She survived her experience proving that the Receiver doesn't always have to die.

This film does blend science and religion together so his death may emphasise him as a saviour and his belief in God. In death Donnie's role as the Living Receiver seems even greater than before.

Other common questions concern the Artifact Donnie sends through the portal at the end of the movie. Many people ask why the PU is not in danger now it has a duplicate object with it. It seems to be the case that the issue of duplicate objects is only a concern once the Universe they're within starts going through the collapsing process. The PU is a stable linear time-line that never goes through a collapsing process so is therefore never in any danger from duplicate objects.

As stated above the Arrtifact is not the cause of the TU, it's just a by-product of it. This is why there is no danger of another TU starting up once Donnie sends his Artifact through the portal at the end of the movie.

  • You can read more about some of the contentious parts of the movie by clicking here
  • You can compare with some of the alternative explanations by clicking here

October 6th 2013 | 12:01:03

great movie with a lot of confusions.

October 5th 2013 | 0:55:05

Mind Fucked.

October 2nd 2013 | 6:33:43

Donnie Darko is the way it is because the writer wanted to tell a drama where the main character dies at the end, has that look at the end for a good POW, and breaks the narrative mold. Everything else is throwing darts of ideas at a the page, seeing what sticks and filling the rest in so that it has some kind of coherence, which it failed to do.
It's always fun for the audience to interpret. But this isn't designed to make sense, and it never will. It is nonsense, no matter how much is thrown at the holes for the sake of sense. This movie is designed to make you feel, appreciate it for what it is.

Josh Heaney
October 2nd 2013 | 1:40:59

after watching this film my mind was boggled so i thought fuck it im gonna read up on it and guess what now my mind is even more fucked guess i shouldnt of watched it stoned tbh :/

October 1st 2013 | 22:57:17

Theory: the manipulated living are acting like a simulation in a program. They have a range of actions that they should follow to direct the receiver to the inevitable course of action to correct the TU and the receiver himself has his own set of actions to follow, triggered by stimulation from the living/dead manipulated actions. All are directed by a correction code embedded in the TU from the start. This code act like physical laws in the PU; cannot be broken and these laws correct any attempt to violate them. As much as the code direct the living manipulated, it also provides the special elements and abilities to the receiver and dead manipulated to fulfill their end-product - their purpose. Once the glitch of the TU is corrected by the receiver; the code would disappear along with the duplicated objects and people in the TU and its influence would be gone.
The question here; how much of consciousness the duplicated receiver and living/dead manipulated has in the TU. Are they totally under the code influence like puppets or characters in a very VERY sophisticated video game on a cosmic-level or do they possess free well. Maybe the only one possessing consciousness (duplicated when the TU was created) is the receiver alone. That is why all the plot concentrated around him. Solipsism believes that you are the only entity with consciousness in the existence and others people (and objects) are illusions, since there is no possible way to experience the consciousness of others.

October 1st 2013 | 21:00:02

DAMN fucking movie. nobody can really understand it well while watching it.

September 30th 2013 | 14:12:19

Could not really get the movie? Anyways, who controls the activites of people in TU?

September 30th 2013 | 4:27:42

I get the article and love the explanation. Just one problem which hasn't been address yet (as far as I've read). The PoTT says that the very existence of the TU means it will create a black hole and destroy the universe. This article suggest that it's the duplicate ARTIFACT in the TU which creates the instability (and hence black hole).
When Donnie sends the engine back into the PU, according to the article both PU and TU now will match up (and hence all will be okay). But is the problem the matching-up of the PU and TU (the exact same events happen in both), or is the problem the very existence of a TU in and of itself!?
If the latter, then how does Donnie's actions DESTROY the TU (which the PoTT seems to suggest is the way to save the universe)? I see no viable way to explain this.

September 29th 2013 | 19:09:24

It says in the article that he has super powers like fire power. And it says that's how he burnt down Jim Cunningham's house, when it's clear that he used gasoline... So I think that the actual use of the fire power is how he wrote the words "They made me do it" into the ground in front of the mascot statue. Just wanted to clear that up.

September 28th 2013 | 20:20:27

Sorry to burst all your bubbles but the reason you people don't understand this movie is because it has too many holes in it and doesn't really make sense. Unless you go with the 'he's just crazy' interpretation.

September 28th 2013 | 15:41:43

First let me say that I love the analysis. It clears up a lot of my prior confusion about the plot.

However, I feel as though you forgot an important character in the development of the movie - Cherita Chen.

Her character's subtlety within the story is very intriguing. She is always in the background - always listening and overlooking everything from a distance.

I believe she is the power or 'God-like' figure that controls the TU. The utilization of such a character is justifiable given the reoccurring motif of one's belief in religion. I believe this is the reason she is shown to have a significantly large notebook with "Donnie Darko" etched into the cover - SHE is essentially 'writing his story'.

Furthermore, this may also explain her speech impairment. She is never heard talking in the PU, but in the TU she is unable to pronounce the 'sh' sound - perhaps as a direct result of the corruption of the TU.

Maybe I'm over-analyzing the depth and importance of such a relatively minor character, but I sincerely believe that there is more to the inclusion of Cherita Chen's character than to just be portrayed as an outsider.

Brianna Hunt
September 27th 2013 | 7:40:56

If Donnie didn't have to die then WHY THE FUCK DID HE.
-_- the feels were too much for me.

September 26th 2013 | 13:21:40

Why did Donnie Darko have to die he could of live if he got out of bed and tell his family to get out of the house he could of had a family of his own so please do a remake and let him live oh and ONCE APON A TIME SOULD MAKE THE REMAKE CAUSE I HATE SAD ENDINGS AND EVERY FILM SOULD HAVE A HAPPY ENDING


September 25th 2013 | 7:25:06

Great movie, total mindfuck. Very well written. Good cast.

Kavish Bhathija
September 23rd 2013 | 5:56:13

I have a question that how come frank became the manipulated dead before donnie even killed him?? If he had gone to past than how come he got killed in the first place cause' he would not be there leading to his death in TU??

September 22nd 2013 | 22:09:16

I watched this when it first came out and it made feel quite emotional, and yet here I am 10 years later or so and it did the same..! Well worth a watch..

September 22nd 2013 | 4:32:30

Excellent Movie is all I have to say. It would be interesting to see how everyone's dream memories come together. What do they remember from the TU?

September 21st 2013 | 3:53:25

It was a really good movie, albeit confusing and really weird. I enjoyed it though!

September 20th 2013 | 22:35:38

I personally like to believe that the entire film is told from the moment the jet engine comes through Donnie's roof, killing him.
Frank is a sort of guide, letting Donnie do everything he wanted to do (burn down a house, flood the school, put an axe through the head of the bronze dog, get the girl) while Donnie is in a sort of limbo.
Donnie, being a bit of a weird guy, believes there's more to life, therefore the wormholes and explanation of destiny and predefined pathways.
TL;DR The whole thing happens when Donnie dies, a sort of "last wish" sorta thing, to make death more palletable

September 16th 2013 | 5:36:17

I could not take this movie seriously at first with the weird six foot tall bunny thing and all. But I realized that I liked it after I tied it all together during the Halloween scene, realizing it was the costume of frank during his death

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Frank - Manipulated Dead
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