Donnie Darko
Franks Eye

Movie Explanation

Firstly this explanation is written assuming that you've seen the film. There are spoilers throughout so it could ruin the enjoyable experience of watching it for the first time.

The film has been carefully made so that there are multiple explanations to what happens. With the release of the director's cut some of the ambiguity has been taken away and the director's true version of the story becomes clearer. The explanation heavily revolves around the book Donnie gets from his teacher, "The Philosophy of Time Travel" written by Roberta Sparrow (Grandma Death). The book is a fictional one but some of the pages were in the film's web site and included into the director's cut version of the movie. You can read those pages here.

PU = Primary Universe (The Universe we exist in now)
TU = Tangent Universe (The parallel Universe that most of the film is set in)
PoTT = Philosophy of Time Travel

Tangent Universe

The PoTT states that time is usually a stable construct but every now and then the fourth dimension gets corrupted. When this happens it creates a TU which is highly unstable and will only last a few weeks before it collapses in upon itself. There is a danger that when the TU collapses it could cause a black hole capable of destroying the PU as well.

This is what happens in the movie, there is a corruption in time and at midnight on October 2nd a TU is created. The next 28 days are now set in this alternate reality. Shortly after the TU starts Frank wakes Donnie up and lures him out of the house. A few minutes later a huge jet engine falls though the rip in time and lands in Donnie's bedroom.

It is important to remember that the TU is NOT created by the jet engine or Frank waking up Donnie. We are already within the TU when both those events occur. Unfortunately we never find out what caused the TU to begin, it's just an unexplained phenomenon.

The Artifact

The ArtifactAccording to the PoTT when a TU is created an Artifact will also spontaneously appear. The Artifact is the first sign of evidence that a TU has been created and are always made from metal. In this case the Artifact is a giant jet engine.

Where the Artifact originally comes from is never disclosed. It was most likely created as the TU was being formed. The TU is an exact copy of the PU with one of everything copied into it. During the copying process there was a glitch and two jet engines were formed. The second engine has nowhere to go as it already exists so it's just dumped where the TU began, over Donnie's house.

The Artifact makes the TU unstable; it can't handle having the anomaly of a duplicate object within it. In order for the TU to unravel without forming a black hole it must once again be an exact copy of the PU. By removing one of the duplicate jet engines it will balance out the Universe allowing the TU to collapse safely. The only way to remove the Artifact is to send it through a portal into the PU.

The Living Receiver

The Living ReceiverWhen a TU occurs with an Artifact then a Living Receiver is also chosen. This person is chosen seemingly at random and in this case Donnie is the chosen one. As Donnie was at the epicentre of the TU this is most likely why he was selected. The Living Receiver's mission is to guide the Artifact out of the TU.

This person is usually blessed with some supernatural powers during their time in the TU to help them with their quest. Some of these include increased strength, mind control, the ability to conjure fire and water and telekinesis.

  • He uses strength to bury the axe into the school water pipe and solid bronze mascot.
  • He uses fire to burn Jim Cunningham's house down
  • He floods the school and constructs a time portal from water.
  • He uses telekinesis to rip the jet engine off the plane to send it through the time portal.

Donnie is not aware of his responsibilities at first though and he doesn't even know he is within a TU. As his journey continues he slowly starts to realise what is going on and what he must do.

Manipulated Dead


Anyone connected to the Living Receiver who dies in the TU becomes Manipulated Dead. These people are very powerful and have the ability to move through time and talk to the Living Receiver through a Fourth Dimensional Construct. They also have some knowledge of the impending disaster and help guide the chosen one.

Frank is killed in the TU and therefore becomes one of the Manipulated Dead. He travels back in time and helps Donnie with his quest to return the Artifact. The first thing he must do is save Donnie by waking him up before he gets squashed by the jet engine. He is like a reverse ghost who appears before he was killed. Gretchen is also Manipulated Dead but she doesn't appear to Donnie in the same way as it might be to confusing for him.

Manipulated Living

Mrs Pomery and DonnieAll the people connected to the Living Receiver are the Manipulated Living and these people will subconsciously help guide the Living receiver. They will behave in the exact perfect way necessary to push Donnie toward his eventual destiny. Nearly every event in the film has a specific purpose designed to aid Donnie to save the Universe.

There is a driving force behind the Manipulated's behaviour... although we never find out what it is for sure. God is one of the most popular ideas mooted, the film does use religion at many points. The story uses lots of religious symbols and often points to the idea that you follow God's channel to decide your own fate. This guiding force is moving all the Manipulated characters around like pieces on a chessboard, making a sequence of events that will lead to Donnie's success. The Universe is in grave danger and this guiding force has stepped in to help save it.

The Ensurance Trap

Dead FrankThe PoTT states that all the Manipulated are trying to lure the Living Receiver into a trap so has no choice but to send the Artifact out of the TU into the PU. The PoTT calls this the Ensurance Trap (old English) . This is effectively the role all the Manipulated play, they are trying to save themselves by guiding Donnie to complete his mission. If Donnie fails they die as well.

Frank tells Donnie to flood the school which in turn leads to Donnie walking Gretchen home and him then asking her to be his girlfriend. This event is not just coincidence; it's specifically put in place as part of the trap.

Gretchen plays a crucial role in the trap, remember Donnie only meets and falls in love with her within the TU. He is given someone to love then she dies. He's so upset at Frank for killing Gretchen he shoots him dead. This has now created Manipulated Dead Frank, the person guiding him to do these things. He must create Manipulated Dead Frank in order to be saved himself in the beginning.

The manipulated have now successfully set the trap. Donnie was saved from death and is now in a desperate situation. His girlfriend is dead and he's a killer on the run. He knows what his purpose is now and only has one way out even though it will ultimately end his own life. Sending the engine through a portal will erase the last 28 days from history and time will return to October 2nd... back to when Gretchen was still alive.

The End of the Film


At the end of the film we see a vortex appear over Donnie's house. It's the beginning of the TU collapse and is centred over where it began. Donnie is aware of what he must do now so he drives up the mountain for a better vantage point. The plane with the same jet engine has been manipulated to fly overhead at this exact time. Donnie rips the engine off using telekinesis, constructs a time portal from water and guides the engine through it.

We now see parts of the last 28 days rewinding as the TU starts to unravel. The TU has collapsed safely and the PU that was on pause starts back up from when it stopped. We are now back in reality on October 2nd, the last 28 days never happened. Donnie wakes up in his bed laughing after dreaming some of the events within the TU. He then goes back to sleep seemingly content with life now. The experience has seemingly brought him closer to God and he is no longer afraid to die. The jet engine Donnie sent through the time portal now falls into his bedroom killing him.


Gretchen WavingEven though the last 28 days never actually happened some of the Manipulated will be haunted in their dreams by their experiences within the TU.

There are bits of evidence to prove this. Frank touching his eye in the final montage and Gretchen waving to Donnie's mum proves that some of the characters have some knowledge of what happened within the lost world.

We see Jim Cunningham crying in the montage as he wakes up... clearly disgusted with himself. Ten days later he clears out his child pornography dungeon and shoots himself on the 14th hole of the golf course... his dirty secret is never revealed.

Final Remarks

Many people assume Donnie has to die otherwise the TU would start over again. From a scientific point of view Donnie's death is not relevant at all , the corruption is already fixed before he dies and if he got up and avoided death then nothing would change. The PoTT tells us of previous Receiver's who died after the Artifact was returned but we only hear about them because their death defies logic. Any Receiver's who escaped death would go completely unnoticed.

It's almost certain Roberta Sparrow was a Living Receiver in a previous TU and that is how she came to write the PoTT. She survived her experience proving that the Receiver doesn't always have to die.

This film does blend science and religion together so his death may emphasise him as a saviour and his belief in God. In death Donnie's role as the Living Receiver seems even greater than before.

Other common questions concern the Artifact Donnie sends through the portal at the end of the movie. Many people ask why the PU is not in danger now it has a duplicate object with it. It seems to be the case that the issue of duplicate objects is only a concern once the Universe they're within starts going through the collapsing process. The PU is a stable linear time-line that never goes through a collapsing process so is therefore never in any danger from duplicate objects.

As stated above the Arrtifact is not the cause of the TU, it's just a by-product of it. This is why there is no danger of another TU starting up once Donnie sends his Artifact through the portal at the end of the movie.

  • You can read more about some of the contentious parts of the movie by clicking here
  • You can compare with some of the alternative explanations by clicking here

Michael D.
January 7th 2014 | 10:25:11


"Cellar Door" is a seed planted by Karen Pomeroy early on that Donnie recalls during the Halloween party. It is what guides him to Roberta Sparrow's basement and part of the Ensurance Trap. If he hadn't have gone there, Gretchen wouldn't have died and he wouldn't have killed Frank, allowing them to be part of the Manipulated Dead.

January 5th 2014 | 22:37:03

Really great explanation, wonderfully simple and well written. But I have a couple unanswered questions:
-How does the opening scene where Donnie wakes up on the highway on the mountain fit into the PU and TU?
-Does the man in the red jumpsuit have anything to do with the PoTT or is he just there for comedic relief?
-And what is Cellar Door?

January 4th 2014 | 13:39:36

You didn't interpret the most important scene for me, the opening. Donnie is found lying on the road, much like Gretchen. Donnie dies after being run over by a car here and rest of the film is a death dream nearly the same as Lynch's Mulholland Drive which coincidentally came out the same year. The fact that he wakes up unscathed indicates that it's his spirit that wakes.

January 4th 2014 | 6:30:09

I really enjoyed this movie because it made you think, especially with that twist at the end. And while I wish there were a more definitive answer as to why and how it all happened, I felt there was a heavy religious implication/allusion throughout the movie, which is why the director made the movie in the way that he did. For some, this movie did not tie up all loose ends due to the ambiguity of the ending. We are left hanging with a lot of things unanswered, but compare it to religion. The idea of God is ambiguous because we can't prove or disprove the existence of God, but everyone believes or has faith in something whether they believe in God or have no faith at all. Although Donnie is incredibly smart (a common trait amongst atheists), he struggles with the idea of God not existing. He has the wherewithal to understand he will never be able to prove if God exists, so he ceases to debate it, but that doesn't settle his uneasiness. And while there is no evidence to prove God exists, it appears he does not want to live in a world without God. When he talks to his therapist, he mentions what Grandma Death said to him in regards to all living things dying alone. His response left me with the idea that he couldn't prove/disprove God, but that what's the point of God existing if we all die alone. So when Donnie says at the end "I hope that when the world comes to an end, I can breathe a sigh of relief because there will be so much to look forward to," it's as if he has made his peace with "God" and looks forward to finding out the answers he is unable to answer in this life. Essentially, his death is the only way for him to prove if God exists. Plus his death (or destruction) allows for many of the awful things that occurred throughout the movie to have an alternative outcome as Donnie pointed out in the Graham Greene novel. He stated that destruction is a form of creation. "What if you could go back in time and take away all those hours of pain and darkness and replace them with something better?" Donnie chooses his own destruction/end because wants to change things, for the better of course. What a great movie!

January 3rd 2014 | 14:32:06

an extremely lucid summary bringing together parts which I had not paused / freeze framed to read.

Its strange, this was my wife and my favorite movie. She recently died of a brain cancer and in my casting about for a grasp of reality I began watching Donnie again. Perplexed by some of the subtleties I stumbled across this site.

It is most peculiar to meet with people who knew me before my marriage but (as I travelled extensively internationally and my wife and I lived in Finland for much of our marriage) never knew I was married. It is like a time trip into a parallel universe in which she never existed.

Thanks for your page.

December 31st 2013 | 0:50:30

Loved this movie, thanks for clarifying things.

Hugo Gains
December 30th 2013 | 19:45:52

anyone see the movie "Primer" ?
doesn't it fallow along the same lines of time travel used in DDarko ?

December 30th 2013 | 19:00:00

Very good movie and explanation! I thought the Chineese student (sorry, I can't remember her name) had something to do with the plot, otherwise they wouldn't have shown her at the talent show or the scene where she runs away from Donnie, and he sees her notebook. I really don't know though, it could be anything.

December 30th 2013 | 18:45:07

What a class film

Common Joe
December 30th 2013 | 15:00:12

So many trying to grab an understanding of this..............
Hey!!! Here's a better Book to wrap your head around.
No worm-holes, TU's or PU's.......................
Oh, Stevey Hawkings doesn't like GOD, I forgot!

SS Himmler
December 30th 2013 | 11:14:40

Mind blown.

December 29th 2013 | 20:21:23

I agree with the analysis up to the end. All of the movie takes place in the TU; Donnie does not die in the PU. When he "rips" the engine off of the plane in the TU and sends it back to the PU, the film rewinds in the TU. We no longer have an Artifact in the TU that will possibly destroy the PU when the TU collapses. The time line for both the PU & the TU are parallel, which means the Artifact is sent back to the PU after the Holloween party and will appear in the PU on October 30. In the end of the film it is October 2 in the TU when Donnie dies. He can now die in the TU, and when it collapses it will not effect the PU because he has removed the Artifact from the TU.

mr c
December 29th 2013 | 19:56:26

loved it.

December 29th 2013 | 4:38:21

I was taught that this was more about divine intervention and that frank purposely disrupted the time sequence(donnies death) so that world would calapse. That is why he chose to save the world. Think

December 29th 2013 | 3:22:29

Donnie was just crazy. PERIOD

December 29th 2013 | 0:44:53

Pretty fucked up movie .. in a good way but also in non understanding way .. um I really dig all the scenes and i think this movie is PIECE OF ART .. maybe some things should left to remain as a mystery - some movies should be seen from everyone's perspective .. how they understated it .. = Basically I think he dreams of an alternate future reality of what would have happened if he hadn't died, right before he actually does die and everyone happen to have the same dream.. doesn't matter is they didn't knowed him ... but somehow ...they are connected to him, people who didn't know him in reality (like his girl because she didn't know him before). I mean its weird stuff we also dream of things and people we have never met .. but ask yourself do they live, do they really exist somewhere on this planet!? Subconscious IS WEIRD STUFF and im pretty fun of it i believe in life after death, i believe in previous lives, i do imaginary alot, im daydreamer .. simply i belive in stuffs that are not explained and probbly not ever will be .. things that are simply weird, things that are happaning around us everyday, but without paying attention to undrstend them - the GOD THING. I like this movie because its damn =religious= and also damn =sci-fi= - things that don't go together in real life, but the author menage to do it. That's why i think this movie is a masterpiece!

mr omg
December 28th 2013 | 11:23:30

Can someone clear this up for me... this explanation says frank becomes the manipulated dead and travels back in time to save donnie from the jet engine. But how does he even become the manipulated dead in the first place, because he only dies after he has saved donnie!? Which wouldn't of happened if donnie was wished. Please someone clear this up for me!

December 27th 2013 | 17:52:54

I enjoyed the movie and wasn't confused until the last 15 minutes when I realized I had no idea what was going on. Thanks very much for the explanation - I never would have gotten ANY of that from watching the movie!

December 27th 2013 | 13:00:47

I don't think Donnie knows at any point he is actually avoiding the collapse of the TU, I think he's just trying to stop the end of the world as Frank told him that was going to happen in 28 days.

I mean, the issue here is, in addition that he is the receiver and all that stuff, he is also quite insane, so we don't ever know if everything is real or just hallucinations. I didn't know anything about his telekinesis or his ability to construct portals with waters until I read this, at the end of the movie when he is looking at the "storm" we never get to know that he used telekinesis as he is only watching it as expecting something to happen (which I understood it was an accident on the plane)

And, if he knew that he was reloading the Universe, I think he would know a fucking plane engine was going to hit him and he would ran out of the house so he could meet again Gretchen. He's just insane.

December 27th 2013 | 9:22:50

Thank you. About a year ago I happened upon the Wikipedia page, and the description made 0 sense to me. Watching the movie, I remembered little bits and pieces of the synopsis, so I think I grasped a little bit more of the movie.
But I just watched it for the first time, and this explanation makes SO MUCH sense. Thank you. So much. apsdoifjaposid. I feel like I truly understand life now.
And James the Rabbit's comment also makes some sense.

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Jim Cunningham - Manipulated Living
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