Firstly this explanation is written assuming that you've seen the film. There are spoilers throughout so it could ruin the enjoyable experience of watching it for the first time.
The film has been carefully made so that there are multiple explanations to what happens. With the release of the director's cut some of the ambiguity has been taken away and the director's true version of the story becomes clearer. The explanation heavily revolves around the book Donnie gets from his teacher, "The Philosophy of Time Travel" written by Roberta Sparrow (Grandma Death). The book is a fictional one but some of the pages were in the film's web site and included into the director's cut version of the movie. You can read those pages here.
PU = Primary Universe (The Universe we exist in now)
TU = Tangent Universe (The parallel Universe that most of the film is set in)
PoTT = Philosophy of Time Travel
The PoTT states that time is usually a stable construct but every now and then the fourth dimension gets corrupted. When this happens it creates a TU which is highly unstable and will only last a few weeks before it collapses in upon itself. There is a danger that when the TU collapses it could cause a black hole capable of destroying the PU as well.
This is what happens in the movie, there is a corruption in time and at midnight on October 2nd a TU is created. The next 28 days are now set in this alternate reality. Shortly after the TU starts Frank wakes Donnie up and lures him out of the house. A few minutes later a huge jet engine falls though the rip in time and lands in Donnie's bedroom.
It is important to remember that the TU is NOT created by the jet engine or Frank waking up Donnie. We are already within the TU when both those events occur. Unfortunately we never find out what caused the TU to begin, it's just an unexplained phenomenon.
According to the PoTT when a TU is created an Artifact will also spontaneously appear. The Artifact is the first sign of evidence that a TU has been created and are always made from metal. In this case the Artifact is a giant jet engine.
Where the Artifact originally comes from is never disclosed. It was most likely created as the TU was being formed. The TU is an exact copy of the PU with one of everything copied into it. During the copying process there was a glitch and two jet engines were formed. The second engine has nowhere to go as it already exists so it's just dumped where the TU began, over Donnie's house.
The Artifact makes the TU unstable; it can't handle having the anomaly of a duplicate object within it. In order for the TU to unravel without forming a black hole it must once again be an exact copy of the PU. By removing one of the duplicate jet engines it will balance out the Universe allowing the TU to collapse safely. The only way to remove the Artifact is to send it through a portal into the PU.
The Living Receiver
When a TU occurs with an Artifact then a Living Receiver is also chosen. This person is chosen seemingly at random and in this case Donnie is the chosen one. As Donnie was at the epicentre of the TU this is most likely why he was selected. The Living Receiver's mission is to guide the Artifact out of the TU.
This person is usually blessed with some supernatural powers during their time in the TU to help them with their quest. Some of these include increased strength, mind control, the ability to conjure fire and water and telekinesis.
- He uses strength to bury the axe into the school water pipe and solid bronze mascot.
- He uses fire to burn Jim Cunningham's house down
- He floods the school and constructs a time portal from water.
- He uses telekinesis to rip the jet engine off the plane to send it through the time portal.
Donnie is not aware of his responsibilities at first though and he doesn't even know he is within a TU. As his journey continues he slowly starts to realise what is going on and what he must do.
Anyone connected to the Living Receiver who dies in the TU becomes Manipulated Dead. These people are very powerful and have the ability to move through time and talk to the Living Receiver through a Fourth Dimensional Construct. They also have some knowledge of the impending disaster and help guide the chosen one.
Frank is killed in the TU and therefore becomes one of the Manipulated Dead. He travels back in time and helps Donnie with his quest to return the Artifact. The first thing he must do is save Donnie by waking him up before he gets squashed by the jet engine. He is like a reverse ghost who appears before he was killed. Gretchen is also Manipulated Dead but she doesn't appear to Donnie in the same way as it might be to confusing for him.
All the people connected to the Living Receiver are the Manipulated Living and these people will subconsciously help guide the Living receiver. They will behave in the exact perfect way necessary to push Donnie toward his eventual destiny. Nearly every event in the film has a specific purpose designed to aid Donnie to save the Universe.
There is a driving force behind the Manipulated's behaviour... although we never find out what it is for sure. God is one of the most popular ideas mooted, the film does use religion at many points. The story uses lots of religious symbols and often points to the idea that you follow God's channel to decide your own fate. This guiding force is moving all the Manipulated characters around like pieces on a chessboard, making a sequence of events that will lead to Donnie's success. The Universe is in grave danger and this guiding force has stepped in to help save it.
The Ensurance Trap
The PoTT states that all the Manipulated are trying to lure the Living Receiver into a trap so has no choice but to send the Artifact out of the TU into the PU. The PoTT calls this the Ensurance Trap (old English) . This is effectively the role all the Manipulated play, they are trying to save themselves by guiding Donnie to complete his mission. If Donnie fails they die as well.
Frank tells Donnie to flood the school which in turn leads to Donnie walking Gretchen home and him then asking her to be his girlfriend. This event is not just coincidence; it's specifically put in place as part of the trap.
Gretchen plays a crucial role in the trap, remember Donnie only meets and falls in love with her within the TU. He is given someone to love then she dies. He's so upset at Frank for killing Gretchen he shoots him dead. This has now created Manipulated Dead Frank, the person guiding him to do these things. He must create Manipulated Dead Frank in order to be saved himself in the beginning.
The manipulated have now successfully set the trap. Donnie was saved from death and is now in a desperate situation. His girlfriend is dead and he's a killer on the run. He knows what his purpose is now and only has one way out even though it will ultimately end his own life. Sending the engine through a portal will erase the last 28 days from history and time will return to October 2nd... back to when Gretchen was still alive.
The End of the Film
At the end of the film we see a vortex appear over Donnie's house. It's the beginning of the TU collapse and is centred over where it began. Donnie is aware of what he must do now so he drives up the mountain for a better vantage point. The plane with the same jet engine has been manipulated to fly overhead at this exact time. Donnie rips the engine off using telekinesis, constructs a time portal from water and guides the engine through it.
We now see parts of the last 28 days rewinding as the TU starts to unravel. The TU has collapsed safely and the PU that was on pause starts back up from when it stopped. We are now back in reality on October 2nd, the last 28 days never happened. Donnie wakes up in his bed laughing after dreaming some of the events within the TU. He then goes back to sleep seemingly content with life now. The experience has seemingly brought him closer to God and he is no longer afraid to die. The jet engine Donnie sent through the time portal now falls into his bedroom killing him.
Even though the last 28 days never actually happened some of the Manipulated will be haunted in their dreams by their experiences within the TU.
There are bits of evidence to prove this. Frank touching his eye in the final montage and Gretchen waving to Donnie's mum proves that some of the characters have some knowledge of what happened within the lost world.
We see Jim Cunningham crying in the montage as he wakes up... clearly disgusted with himself. Ten days later he clears out his child pornography dungeon and shoots himself on the 14th hole of the golf course... his dirty secret is never revealed.
Many people assume Donnie has to die otherwise the TU would start over again. From a scientific point of view Donnie's death is not relevant at all , the corruption is already fixed before he dies and if he got up and avoided death then nothing would change. The PoTT tells us of previous Receiver's who died after the Artifact was returned but we only hear about them because their death defies logic. Any Receiver's who escaped death would go completely unnoticed.
It's almost certain Roberta Sparrow was a Living Receiver in a previous TU and that is how she came to write the PoTT. She survived her experience proving that the Receiver doesn't always have to die.
This film does blend science and religion together so his death may emphasise him as a saviour and his belief in God. In death Donnie's role as the Living Receiver seems even greater than before.
Other common questions concern the Artifact Donnie sends through the portal at the end of the movie. Many people ask why the PU is not in danger now it has a duplicate object with it. It seems to be the case that the issue of duplicate objects is only a concern once the Universe they're within starts going through the collapsing process. The PU is a stable linear time-line that never goes through a collapsing process so is therefore never in any danger from duplicate objects.
As stated above the Arrtifact is not the cause of the TU, it's just a by-product of it. This is why there is no danger of another TU starting up once Donnie sends his Artifact through the portal at the end of the movie.
- You can read more about some of the contentious parts of the movie by clicking here
- You can compare with some of the alternative explanations by clicking here
it was really awesome................
but how did frank ever come to exist in the tangent universe.
Angus, at the point when Frank (the manipulated dead) saves donnie from the plane wreck accident the alternate universe is already in existence. The wormhole had already formed in order for the engine to appear. Thus the manipulated dead also exists until he has successfully guided darko to end the alternate universe.
but for those events to happen Donnie would of had to be saved by frank, to do those things.
but Donnie has to kill frank so he can help Donnie but in order for Donnie to get the opportunity to kill frank he would have to be saved by frank witch isn't possible.
for Donnie to kill frank in any circumstance he would have to avoid the jet engine by manipulated dead frank but this event inst possible
a movie as complicated as this is almost impossible to write so i understand that some bits are going to have errors.
@Angus Moates, instead of thinking about time as a linear line, try to imagine it as a map. On this map are the events that occur, in the past and future, and we experience time as passing linearly as we travel across this map, from the past to the future.
i've read lots of explanations of donnie darko but it still does not make sense for instance frank being a manipulated dead doesent work.
when frank tells donnie to leave his room when the jet engine goes through.
but if frank didnt tell Donnie he would die.
but for frank to be killed by Donnie, frank would of had to save donnie at the start.
but for frank to be killed and become a manipulated dead he would of had to of been killed by donnie but he cant become dead because donnie should be dead and frank cant help him.
I've seen the movie today and was looking for an answer to the ending, and it turns out that the explanating is excatly the same I was thinking.
I've watched this movie more than once. Loved it so much. I kinda had an idea of what was going on, but wasn't to positive about it so I decided to look it up. Turns out, my idea was pretty much on the spot. I'm only 14, and I completely understand this movie even more because of this. Thank youu!
Wearing the costume for Easter! lol
I saw this movie for the first time about two years ago. To this day it still captivates me and has blown my soul to new dimensions. Just stopping by to pay homage for a wonderful site, thanks a lot Dan Smith! :D
This is a good explanation, and one of the most difficult to decipher movies I have ever seen!
I suggest taking a look back at your grammar in "The End of the Film" section, such a good write up spoiled by some silly mistakes.
"The PoTT tells us of previous Receiver's who died after the Artifact was returned but we only here about them because there death defies logic."
here=hear and there=their.
Great work though, not trolling just want to help improve the site.
I saw this movie years ago and this really kind of mindfucked me, especially because I was about 12 when I saw this movie and now I'm realizing how much more there was to this than meets the eye. Insane. Also, it's kind of cool how this movie came out near enough 11 years ago, yet people are still interested in the explanation and are commenting to this day... Such a good movie.
Thank you for this site. I have NEVER wanted or needed to look up a movie after watching it. LOVED it and now I'm wowed even more after reading the explanation! Awesome.
I got the movie but never watch it
I watched the movie several times, listened to the directors commentary and read a lot of information on the web. This gave me a rounded collection of data that helped form what I consider to be a full explanation without to many holes.
By the way, I'm curious, how did you come to this explanation?
Great site, thanks so much for explaining Donnie Darko. :)
Remember, there are two jet engines..1 in the Primary Universe and 1 in the Tangent universe.
Here is the timeline...We are in the primary universe with 1 jet engine. The tangent universe gets created with a duplicate of everything that was in the primary and we are now in the tangent. The problem is, along with the duplicate jet engine in the tangent universe, somehow the original jet engine got dragged into the tangent universe also...the rest of the plane didn't come along for the ride. the result is that there are now 2 identical jet engines in the tangent universe. Universe cannot sustain this anomoly so it will collapse in 28 days unless Donnie can can send one of the jet engines back into the primary universe. It just so happens that the engine he sends back is actually the duplicate engine created for the tangent universe. The end result is both universes have a single copy of the jet engine. All the world is right again.
Which parts do you think are made up?
Alot of the things said in the explanation are wrong. Some things are true and helpful but the rest just sounds made up.