Firstly this explanation is written assuming that you've seen the film. There are spoilers throughout so it could ruin the enjoyable experience of watching it for the first time.
The film has been carefully made so that there are multiple explanations to what happens. With the release of the director's cut some of the ambiguity has been taken away and the director's true version of the story becomes clearer. The explanation heavily revolves around the book Donnie gets from his teacher, "The Philosophy of Time Travel" written by Roberta Sparrow (Grandma Death). The book is a fictional one but some of the pages were in the film's web site and included into the director's cut version of the movie. You can read those pages here.
PU = Primary Universe (The Universe we exist in now)
TU = Tangent Universe (The parallel Universe that most of the film is set in)
PoTT = Philosophy of Time Travel
The PoTT states that time is usually a stable construct but every now and then the fourth dimension gets corrupted. When this happens it creates a TU which is highly unstable and will only last a few weeks before it collapses in upon itself. There is a danger that when the TU collapses it could cause a black hole capable of destroying the PU as well.
This is what happens in the movie, there is a corruption in time and at midnight on October 2nd a TU is created. The next 28 days are now set in this alternate reality. Shortly after the TU starts Frank wakes Donnie up and lures him out of the house. A few minutes later a huge jet engine falls though the rip in time and lands in Donnie's bedroom.
It is important to remember that the TU is NOT created by the jet engine or Frank waking up Donnie. We are already within the TU when both those events occur. Unfortunately we never find out what caused the TU to begin, it's just an unexplained phenomenon.
According to the PoTT when a TU is created an Artifact will also spontaneously appear. The Artifact is the first sign of evidence that a TU has been created and are always made from metal. In this case the Artifact is a giant jet engine.
Where the Artifact originally comes from is never disclosed. It was most likely created as the TU was being formed. The TU is an exact copy of the PU with one of everything copied into it. During the copying process there was a glitch and two jet engines were formed. The second engine has nowhere to go as it already exists so it's just dumped where the TU began, over Donnie's house.
The Artifact makes the TU unstable; it can't handle having the anomaly of a duplicate object within it. In order for the TU to unravel without forming a black hole it must once again be an exact copy of the PU. By removing one of the duplicate jet engines it will balance out the Universe allowing the TU to collapse safely. The only way to remove the Artifact is to send it through a portal into the PU.
The Living Receiver
When a TU occurs with an Artifact then a Living Receiver is also chosen. This person is chosen seemingly at random and in this case Donnie is the chosen one. As Donnie was at the epicentre of the TU this is most likely why he was selected. The Living Receiver's mission is to guide the Artifact out of the TU.
This person is usually blessed with some supernatural powers during their time in the TU to help them with their quest. Some of these include increased strength, mind control, the ability to conjure fire and water and telekinesis.
- He uses strength to bury the axe into the school water pipe and solid bronze mascot.
- He uses fire to burn Jim Cunningham's house down
- He floods the school and constructs a time portal from water.
- He uses telekinesis to rip the jet engine off the plane to send it through the time portal.
Donnie is not aware of his responsibilities at first though and he doesn't even know he is within a TU. As his journey continues he slowly starts to realise what is going on and what he must do.
Anyone connected to the Living Receiver who dies in the TU becomes Manipulated Dead. These people are very powerful and have the ability to move through time and talk to the Living Receiver through a Fourth Dimensional Construct. They also have some knowledge of the impending disaster and help guide the chosen one.
Frank is killed in the TU and therefore becomes one of the Manipulated Dead. He travels back in time and helps Donnie with his quest to return the Artifact. The first thing he must do is save Donnie by waking him up before he gets squashed by the jet engine. He is like a reverse ghost who appears before he was killed. Gretchen is also Manipulated Dead but she doesn't appear to Donnie in the same way as it might be to confusing for him.
All the people connected to the Living Receiver are the Manipulated Living and these people will subconsciously help guide the Living receiver. They will behave in the exact perfect way necessary to push Donnie toward his eventual destiny. Nearly every event in the film has a specific purpose designed to aid Donnie to save the Universe.
There is a driving force behind the Manipulated's behaviour... although we never find out what it is for sure. God is one of the most popular ideas mooted, the film does use religion at many points. The story uses lots of religious symbols and often points to the idea that you follow God's channel to decide your own fate. This guiding force is moving all the Manipulated characters around like pieces on a chessboard, making a sequence of events that will lead to Donnie's success. The Universe is in grave danger and this guiding force has stepped in to help save it.
The Ensurance Trap
The PoTT states that all the Manipulated are trying to lure the Living Receiver into a trap so has no choice but to send the Artifact out of the TU into the PU. The PoTT calls this the Ensurance Trap (old English) . This is effectively the role all the Manipulated play, they are trying to save themselves by guiding Donnie to complete his mission. If Donnie fails they die as well.
Frank tells Donnie to flood the school which in turn leads to Donnie walking Gretchen home and him then asking her to be his girlfriend. This event is not just coincidence; it's specifically put in place as part of the trap.
Gretchen plays a crucial role in the trap, remember Donnie only meets and falls in love with her within the TU. He is given someone to love then she dies. He's so upset at Frank for killing Gretchen he shoots him dead. This has now created Manipulated Dead Frank, the person guiding him to do these things. He must create Manipulated Dead Frank in order to be saved himself in the beginning.
The manipulated have now successfully set the trap. Donnie was saved from death and is now in a desperate situation. His girlfriend is dead and he's a killer on the run. He knows what his purpose is now and only has one way out even though it will ultimately end his own life. Sending the engine through a portal will erase the last 28 days from history and time will return to October 2nd... back to when Gretchen was still alive.
The End of the Film
At the end of the film we see a vortex appear over Donnie's house. It's the beginning of the TU collapse and is centred over where it began. Donnie is aware of what he must do now so he drives up the mountain for a better vantage point. The plane with the same jet engine has been manipulated to fly overhead at this exact time. Donnie rips the engine off using telekinesis, constructs a time portal from water and guides the engine through it.
We now see parts of the last 28 days rewinding as the TU starts to unravel. The TU has collapsed safely and the PU that was on pause starts back up from when it stopped. We are now back in reality on October 2nd, the last 28 days never happened. Donnie wakes up in his bed laughing after dreaming some of the events within the TU. He then goes back to sleep seemingly content with life now. The experience has seemingly brought him closer to God and he is no longer afraid to die. The jet engine Donnie sent through the time portal now falls into his bedroom killing him.
Even though the last 28 days never actually happened some of the Manipulated will be haunted in their dreams by their experiences within the TU.
There are bits of evidence to prove this. Frank touching his eye in the final montage and Gretchen waving to Donnie's mum proves that some of the characters have some knowledge of what happened within the lost world.
We see Jim Cunningham crying in the montage as he wakes up... clearly disgusted with himself. Ten days later he clears out his child pornography dungeon and shoots himself on the 14th hole of the golf course... his dirty secret is never revealed.
Many people assume Donnie has to die otherwise the TU would start over again. From a scientific point of view Donnie's death is not relevant at all , the corruption is already fixed before he dies and if he got up and avoided death then nothing would change. The PoTT tells us of previous Receiver's who died after the Artifact was returned but we only hear about them because their death defies logic. Any Receiver's who escaped death would go completely unnoticed.
It's almost certain Roberta Sparrow was a Living Receiver in a previous TU and that is how she came to write the PoTT. She survived her experience proving that the Receiver doesn't always have to die.
This film does blend science and religion together so his death may emphasise him as a saviour and his belief in God. In death Donnie's role as the Living Receiver seems even greater than before.
Other common questions concern the Artifact Donnie sends through the portal at the end of the movie. Many people ask why the PU is not in danger now it has a duplicate object with it. It seems to be the case that the issue of duplicate objects is only a concern once the Universe they're within starts going through the collapsing process. The PU is a stable linear time-line that never goes through a collapsing process so is therefore never in any danger from duplicate objects.
As stated above the Arrtifact is not the cause of the TU, it's just a by-product of it. This is why there is no danger of another TU starting up once Donnie sends his Artifact through the portal at the end of the movie.
- You can read more about some of the contentious parts of the movie by clicking here
- You can compare with some of the alternative explanations by clicking here
In explanation of why the characters are shown reacting to what happened in the Tangent Universe. Everyone human experiences time in a linear way. Upon existing in the TU they have created new experiences. These experiences are remembered by those in the PU but not in a traditional sense. Because they have not yet experienced the time linearly, their subconscious, which is most active during sleep, translates the information into dreams or emotions. Now, those characters are only aware of what is was that they themselves experienced, not fully, but subconsciously. Frank doesn't remember in a linear fashion that he was shot, but something in his mind remembers that something had happened to it and is curious as to why that might have been but no longer isn't. This all seems to suggest that the mind is aware of the existence of time yet lacks a full grasp of its workings. These are just my thoughts on the matter.
I love this movie, saw it years ago, and since it's on Netflix I rewatch it every once and a while, I always felt I understood it, but this gets way deeper than I originally thought of the film
This movie holds some power huh? Lol
What if grandma death is the current living receiver and Donnie is just one of the manipulated dead...
Bet 75% of yall watch this on Netflix and didn't understand like me
-Thanks it cleared up a lot
Funny I re-watched this movie about a day before that Malaysian Airlines plane went missing
Quite a few holes and stretches in this explanation.
The most obvious one is the claim that everything in the PU is copied to the TU. What about people? Are people in the TU _copies_ of the original people? Or are they the original people themselves, _moved_ from PU to TU?
If the former is true, then why does the movie show at the end that people in PU retain some sort of subconscious memory of the events in TU? They can't remember something that never happened to them. (The same would apply to the book author.)
If the latter is true, then what is the criteria for the copying process? What gets copied and what gets moved to the TU? This requires a special explanation.
Just finished the movie,and made a research in order to figure out was was going on.Thanks for the explanation,it helped me a lot! I loved the film!!
very good classic film.
Well this clears up so much! Thank you~
Because as I was watching (not too long ago) all I was thinking was, 'well this is open to many different interpretations.'
But honestly it was very confusing, until now that is.
Such an amazing classic film!
its funny how recent these comments are. I just watched it again for the first time in years and ended up here too shortly after.
This movie is so old, but a timeless classic as evidenced by all these comments (over 54 pages!)
Gotta love Burman!
Just watched the movie a few days ago. Can't believe what i saw. the movie was so different, so timeless. I wonder is the second one will be as good as the first. Also, will there be a thrid?!
Thank a lot for explanation.
I finally understand the end of Donnie's letter
"I hope that when the world comes to an end, I can breathe a sigh of relief, because there will be so much to look forward to."
He's talking about the end of the TU, and himself dying. If he decided to get out of bed, he could have recreated everything in the PU, so that he could be with Gretchen again. But that would also end with her dying again, and him killing Frank. But it being in the PU, he wouldn't get a retry.
He said everything he needed to say to everyone, and he had no regrets when he sent the engine back.
Which is why he is smiling at Gretchen, because he know she will be alive again and wont be killed, even if it means he wont be with her.
He chooses to die because he's lived out what he wanted to live out, and he doesn't feel alone anymore.
@Holly, they all wake up and remember everything that happens to them in the TU. Why they wake up isnt really known, maybe just that the dream was so vivid and scary(For some) that they just woke up. Or maybe having the dream woke them all up.
All of them were living receivers, except Frank and Gretchen, who were manipulated dead.
Most of them are crying because they did terrible things, or they are sad that they know what happened.
Cherita I believe is the only one smiling because of what Donnie says to her in the hallway.
Friendly reminder that this month has the exact same dates as when Donnie Darko happens
The only difference is it's not October
It happened again...help something went wrong